Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

Several elements of an person’s Swiss made dive watches look have been proven to predict personality and associated behaviour. While a number of these cues are grounded in biology (e.G., the human face), different elements of a person’s appearance can be actively managed (e.G., clothing). In this paper, we recall a common style accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > a hundred) and a confirmatory pattern (N > six hundred), we as compared large-5 persona trends between folks that do or do now not often put on a wellknown wristwatch. Significantly higher stages of conscientiousness have been observed in participants who wore an eye fixed. In a 3rd study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived notably earlier to appointments in evaluation to controls. These effects are mentioned in terms of enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.

Keywords: Time, Appearance, Personality, Conscientiousness, Punctuality
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Observers robotically make fast inferences about persona based totally on aspects of personal look across a selection of contexts (Wall et al., 2013). Inferences are frequently based on records revealed through cues from the face, frame, or voice. For example, components of persona extracted from short snippets of novel voices are remarkably steady among participants (McAleer, Todorov & Belin, 2014). People with huge faces are continually rated as competitive (Carré & McCormick, 2008). For a few traits, there seems to be a sturdy organic foundation that explains any behavioural correlate—testosterone affects facial look and aggression for example (Verdonck et al., 1999). However, a 2d related department of studies issues other factors of an people’ appearance that could actively be controlled and a selection of precise inferential hyperlinks have been located between unique ‘capabilities’ of clothing and components of individual. Participants who put on glasses had been rated as much less extraverted and much less open to experience (Borkenau, 1991; Hellstrom & Tekle, 2006) while the presence of tattoos are related to decrease tiers of conscientious and higher degrees of extraversion (Swami, 2012).

This line of studies additionally raises the question of how reliable these inferences are in terms of predicting behaviour. The fact that those aspects of look are selected by way of the individual in preference to being biologically endowed may propose a weaker link among look and behavior, but a developing frame of research at the phenomenon of ‘enclothed cognition’, in which changes in apparel can also have an effect on behaviour, challenges this assumption. Adam & Galinsky (2012) these days tested that sporting a lab coat defined as a ‘health practitioner’s coat’ expanded sustained attention whilst in comparison to carrying a lab coat that become classified as a ‘painter’s coat.’ They argue that ‘enclothed cognition’ relies upon on each the symbolic meaning and the bodily revel in of wearing garments. In addition, results running within the contrary path (from persona to appearance) may be more workable for non-biological elements. An competitive man or woman for instance cannot pick to have a broader face, but he should choose to put on black clothes and make themselves appear more aggressive (Vrij, 1997). Here we attention on one unique garb accessory, the wristwatch. Watches are an exciting case due to the fact they are designed to carry out a completely precise feature—to inform the time. This specificity of characteristic lends itself to experimentation as it suggests very targeted predictions about persona and behavior.

Despite the upward thrust in cellular gadgets with built-in clocks, the range of widespread watch owners has remained static in latest years (Hoffman, 2009; Mintel, 2010). On the alternative hand, at the same time as many human beings keep to often put on a wristwatch, many selected to keep away from them completely. Their prominence or absence in regular life once more makes them an excellent candidate while thinking about external markers of personality.

While studies concerning the connection between character and an person’s outward look appears to be flourishing (e.G., Hellstrom & Tekle, 2006; Gillath et al., 2012; Swami, 2012), a number of obstacles hold to have an effect on this literature. First, there stays an over-reliance on university scholar samples. These samples might not be representative of the broader population (Swami, 2012). Secondly, preceding studies often fails to move beyond self-file (e.G., Gillath et al., 2012), with many papers failing to consist of an additional behavioural degree which can help explain or affirm variations located in personality rankings on my own.

In order to overcome those obstacles, and based totally on the basis that a center aspect of conscientiousness is right timekeeping, planning (Back, Schmukle & Egloff, 2006), and agency (Lee & Ashton, 2004), we expected that watch wearers could score constantly higher on a easy degree of conscientiousness in contrast to non-watch wearers. Accordingly, timekeeping can be operationalised as punctuality and if watch wearers clearly are greater conscientious then they will, in flip, be greater punctual in a real-lifestyles putting.

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Study 1
Ethics assertion
The University of Glasgow, College of Science & Engineering Ethics Committee accredited all studies (2013–4641). Participants had been knowledgeable about tactics in element and supplied written informed consent.

We assessed personality the usage of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). The TIPI became evolved by using Gosling, Rentfrow & Swann (2003) to fulfill the want for a completely brief measure of the Big-Five character dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional balance and openness to experience). This degree turned into chosen due to its quick nature, which allowed us to acquire comparable information from both members of the public and students who had a limited quantity of time to take part.

One hundred and twelve members were recruited and protected individuals of the general public attending The British Science Festival in 2010 and students analyzing psychology at Glasgow or Lincoln Universities inside the United Kingdom (sixty two.5% lady) who have been waiting to participate in experiments. Their ages ranged from 17 to 54.

Individuals coming near a psychology stand have been asked if they wanted to take part in a quick look at associated with persona. If written consent became obtained, contributors were required to fill out the TIPI. They have been then requested whether or not or now not they regularly wore a wristwatch. A ordinary watch wearer turned into defined as someone who wore a fashionable wristwatch, maximum of the time, for as a minimum a 12 months. Finally, all members were thanked for his or her time and fully debriefed as to the true nature of the take a look at.

As expected, contributors who identified themselves as regular watch wearers rated themselves as extensively more conscientious when as compared with controls (Table 1). We also located that watch wearers scored lower in extraversion, agreeableness and openness, but better on emotional stability. However, earlier than accomplishing a similarly multivariate analysis, we next sought to copy this finding in a bigger confirmatory pattern.

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